Our researchers have been studying the ritual dynamics of special populations exposed to group-related violence (e.g., war veterans, ex-convicts, war-torn communities), helping us to extend the modes theory. For example, we have been using a mathematical model of the evolution of violent self-sacrifice for the group to generate predictions we can then test empirically with samples of military veterans, participants in hazing rituals, football fans, martial arts practitioners, and a large sample of twins. This research has been helping us to explain willingness to fight and die for the group and has important implications for tackling sectarianism, gang-related violence, and suicide terrorism. Researchers found that shared suffering in the wake of a traumatic group loss can serve to increase social cohesion and prosocial giving toward a common cause. In addition, we found that in highly competitive intergroup contexts, highly fused individuals are exceptionally willing to cause harm to outgroup members to maximize the ingroup’s advantage. Identifying this source of conflict escalation is a key step toward developing novel means of conflict resolution. We have also been studying barrier-crossing leaders working in communities with histories of religious and ethnic conflict and found that leaders who have personally experienced profound suffering with outgroup members are subsequently fused to the outgroup and thus able to effectively pursue inter-group conflict resolution. Our researchers also found that when Brazilian football hooligans perceive themselves as brothers-in-arms, they feel justified to engage in defensive violence against outgroups. Contrary to rival perspectives, we found no evidence that violent hooligans were socially maladjusted. Membership of extreme sub-groups exacerbated the relationship between fusion and violence. We also found evidence that membership of extreme sub-groups was associated with higher fusion and violence levels among hard core Indonesian and Australian football fans. Here, we found that fusion mediated the relationship between relational transformativeness and violent pro-group outcomes.